Global Health

Pediatric Clinic Pediatric Clinic

Introduction

CENGSSUD coordinate a collaborative voice of the global health community on global health issues; it convenes stakeholders and experts around key global health priorities and actively engages key decision makers to influence health policy.

Facilities

As the shared voice of the global health community, CENGSSUD facilitates critical discussion around global health priorities and advocates for improved investments and policies to advance the global health agenda.

Global health is the health of populations in a global context; it has been defined as "the area of study, research and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide".

Global health employs several perspectives that focus on the determinants and distribution of health in international contexts:

  • Medicine describes the pathology of diseases and promotes prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.
  • Public health emphasizes the health of populations.
  • Epidemiology helps identify risk factors and causes of health problems.
  • Demography provides data for policy decisions.
  • Economics emphasizes the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit approaches for the optimal allocation of health resources.
  • Other social sciences such as sociology, development studies, anthropology, cultural studies, and law can help understand the determinants of health in societies.

Both individuals and organizations working in the domain of global health often face many questions regarding ethical and human rights. Critical examination of the various causes and justifications of health inequities is necessary for the success of proposed solutions.

Facts and Figures

Child health

  • 17,000 fewer children die each day than in 1990, but more than six million children still die before their fifth birthday each year
  • Since 2000, measles vaccines have averted nearly 15.6 million deaths
  • Despite determined global progress, an increasing proportion of child deaths are in sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia. Four out of every five deaths of children under age five occur in these regions.
  • Children born into poverty are almost twice as likely to die before the age of five as those from wealthier families.
  • Children of educated mothers—even mothers with only primary schooling—are more likely to survive than children of mothers with no education.

Maternal health

  • Maternal mortality has fallen by almost 50 per cent since 1990
  • In Eastern Asia, Northern Africa and Southern Asia, maternal mortality has declined by around two-thirds
  • But maternal mortality ratio – the proportion of mothers that do not survive childbirth compared to those who do –   in developing regions is still 14 times higher than in the developed regions
  • More women are receiving antenatal care. In developing regions, antenatal care increased from 65 per cent in 1990 to 83 per cent in 2012
  • Only half of women in developing regions receive the recommended amount of health care they need
  • Fewer teens are having children in most developing regions, but progress has slowed. The large increase in contraceptive use in the 1990s was not matched in the 2000s
  • The need for family planning is slowly being met for more women, but demand is increasing at a rapid pace

HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

  • At the end of 2014, there were 13.6 million people accessing antiretroviral therapy
  • New HIV infections in 2013 were estimated at 2.1 million, which was 38 per cent lower than in 2001
  • At the end of 2013, there were an estimated 35 million people living with HIV
  • At the end of 2013, 240 000 children were newly infected with HIV
  • New HIV infections among children have declined by 58 per cent since 2001
  • Globally, adolescent girls and young women face gender-based inequalities, exclusion, discrimination and violence, which put them at increased risk of acquiring HIV
  • HIV is the leading cause of death for women of reproductive age worldwide
  • TB-related deaths in people living with HIV have fallen by 36% since 2004
  • There were 250 000 new HIV infections among adolescents in 2013, two thirds of which were among adolescent girls
  • AIDS is now the leading cause of death among adolescents (aged 10–19) in Africa and the second most common cause of death among adolescents globally
  • In many settings, adolescent girls’ right to privacy and bodily autonomy is not respected, as many report that their first sexual experience was forced
  • As of 2013, 2.1 million adolescents were living with HIV
  • Over 6.2 million malaria deaths have been averted between 2000 and 2015, primarily of children under five years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. The global malaria incidence rate has fallen by an estimated 37 per cent and the morality rates by 58 per cent
  • Between 2000 and 2013, tuberculosis prevention, diagnosis and treatment interventions saved an estimated 37 million lives. The tuberculosis mortality rate fell by 45 per cent and the prevalence rate by 41 per cent between 1990 and 2013